Toptextil fabrics show very high abrasion resistance. Testing of this factor is performed using Martindale’s test according to PN-EN ISO 12947-2:2017-02. It consists in placing the tested fabric sample in the machine, which rubs it with constant pressure with a woolen cloth or sandpaper for several hours or even days without a break. The test result is determined in cycles/strokes, i.e. the number of abrasions that have been followed by abrasion of the fibers specified in the standard (usually two or three strands).
The average abrasion resistance of the fabric is about 2000 – 4000 cycles, which is about a year of very intensive use of the furniture. Most Toptextil materials have a durability of over 40,000 cycles, which means that the furniture will not wear out for as long as 10 years!
pilling and shedding
Toptextil fabrics are characterized by high resistance to shedding and pilling. Shedding is a process of creating tiny fibers on the surface of the fabric, which, by further rubbing, get knocked together into balls that create a pilling effect. The test of the fabric’s tendency to shedding and pilling consists in rubbing the tested material with a cloth (usually woolen fabric) a number of times specified in the standard. Then, according to the PN-EN ISO 12945-2:2002 standard, the degree of the fabric pilling is assessed on a scale from 1 to 5, where one means a total surface shedding, and 5 means no changes.
Pilling, on the other hand, is the process of creating clusters of tangled fibers (balls) on the surface of textile products under the influence of friction, during their use. Two types of this phenomenon can be distinguished:
foreign pilling resulting from the upholstery fabric fibers joining with material directly adjacent to it, e.g. a cover; it is easiest to remove it with a clothing shaver; own pilling is created from fabric yarn by rubbing it; it is most often found in textiles containing both natural and synthetic fibers such as wool and polyester. The content of natural fibers may cause an increased tendency to pilling during the first months of using the fabric. It is not a defect of the fabric. After a couple of months, the process of pilling is over.
shift in stitching
Toptextil fabrics show high resistance to displacement in the seam. Testing of this factor consists in stitching two pieces of the same fabric specified in PN-EN ISO 13936-2:2005 standard with a stitch and thread (usually 33 stitches per 10 cm of stitch), and then stretching the resulting seam on a resistance machine with appropriate force. The resulting clearance in the material is expressed in millimeters.
color resistance to friction
The test of color resistance to friction allows us to determine whether the fabric will discolor during use and, consequently, whether it can dye your clothes. In the case of upholstery fabrics, this is a particularly important feature, as these fabrics are usually used for many years, and in the case of intense coloring of the fabric, such as red or black, stains formed on our clothes may remain permanent.
There are two types of testing for color resistance to friction: dry and wet. The result of the resistance test is given according to PN-EN ISO 105-X12:2016-08 on a scale of 1-5, where 5 means maximum resistance and 1 means no resistance. Toptextil fabrics have a high resistance of 5 to friction.
resistance to light
Toptextil fabrics are characterized by high resistance to light. This means that they do not fade even with high levels of natural and artificial light.
The light resistance test shall be carried out on two identical fabric samples. One of them shall be placed in a chamber which affects the sample with light intensity according to the standard, but also with an appropriate temperature level. At the end of the test, the sample from the chamber is compared with a sample of the fabric that has not been exposed to light. The result is evaluated according to PN-EN ISO 105-B02:2014-11 method 2 on an 8-grade scale, where 8 means no change and 1 very large change.
Fabrics for outdoor use must be particularly resistant to discoloration caused by changing weather conditions. In the case of color resistance to particular weather conditions, the result depends on the color of the fabric, so within a collection each color may have a different result. The group numbers (I, II, III or IV) listed next to the color number refer to the resistance of the specific color:
Group I – low resistance Group II – medium resistance
Group III – high resistance Group IV – very high resistance
Note that the darker the color, the lower the discoloration resistance. Nevertheless, under European conditions, even the color with the lowest resistance will remain for at least three seasons. Toptextil Outdoor fabrics are characterized by very high color resistance to light.
quality testing of eco-leather
The quality test of eco-leathers differs from that of fabrics and knitted fabrics because of the characteristic polyurethane coating that eco-leathers are covered with. The following tests are used to assess the quality of eco-leathers:
Martindale’s test – the evaluation of test results is different from that of fabrics and knitted fabrics. The eco-leather is rubbed a number of times specified in the standard and then the rubbing results are evaluated on a 5-point scale, where 0 means no change and 5 means polyurethane top layer complete rubbed off.
Tear resistance – the tear test determines the material’s resistance to two tensile forces in the cut material. The samples are cut from the material into the shape of wings, by which they are attached to handles. The sample is torn under the influence of an operating force. The force is recorded until the sample is torn. The test results are expressed in Newtons. (N)
Tensile strength – the tensile test determines the material’s resistance to a unidirectional tensile force on a uniform (not cut) specimen. The material is placed in a machine that stretches it until it is torn. The result of the test is the force value expressed in Newtons (N) needed to tear the sample.
Oeko-tex Standard 100
Toptextil fabrics meet Oeko-Tex® Standard 100. It is a system of certification and testing of products and semi-finished textile products at all stages of their processing. It aims to ensure that textile products labeled with it are free from harmful and potentially harmful substances (chemicals that can adversely affect human health). More than 100 test criteria have been established which must be taken into account for a textile product to be considered safe according to Oeko-Tex® Standard 100. In Poland, the certification process is managed by the Institute of Textiles in Łódź.
The certificate classifies fabrics into 4 groups:
class I: Textile products and textile toys for infants and children under 3 years of age (e.g. underwear, sleepers, bedding, plush toys)
class II: Textile articles with a large part of the surface in direct contact with the skin (e.g. underwear, bedding, blouses, socks, stockings) class III: Textile products which do not come into direct contact with the skin or are very limited in their contact (e.g. jackets, coats, clothing inserts)
class IV: Materials for interior furnishings and decorations (e.g. upholstery fabrics, tablecloths, curtains)
Selected Toptextil upholstery fabrics have a Class II certificate, which guarantees that the production process is environmentally friendly and the material is safe even for the most demanding users such as infants, people suffering from allergies or those with skin diseases.
All Toptextil collections and their manufacturing process comply with the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals). This is a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the European Council regulating the use of chemicals in the European Union, through their registration and evaluation and, in some cases, the authorization and restriction of marketing.
Within the framework of the REACH Regulation, a number of amendments have been adopted in order to improve the management and control of trade in chemicals within the European Union. The main objectives of the system created by REACH are
protecting human health and the environment, ensuring a high level of occupational safety and security, maintaining and reinforcing the competitiveness of the European chemical industry, integrating European activities into international efforts, minimizing testing on vertebrate animals